By John Beames
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Additional info for A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India
It is useful here to compare Kashmiri with other languages that exhibit verb-second order in subordinate clauses, such as the Germanic languages Yiddish and Icelandic. In the case of indirect questions in all three of these languages, there are a number of constituents on the left-periphery, including the topic, the wh -word, and the verb. In indirect questions in Yiddish, the order of the constituents is wh-topic-verb, but never *topic-wh-verb (Diesing 1990; Bhatt 1999). (38) Ikh veys vos bay mir tut zikh.
First, ki is optional and is never required in a subordinating construction. In fact, there are instances in which ki must not appear, such as when a clause is preposed. PST-lMSG (*ki) selim gav ki. ' (Wali & Koul: 48) Ifwe can assume that the first clause in (47) is in fact a preposed subordinate clause, we can observe that ki cannot appear when the clause it precedes is preposed. If this is the case, it suggests that ki is not selected by verbs like zanaan 'know: If ki were selected by this verb, it should appear regardless of the ultimate location of the subordinate clause.
In the case ofKashmiri, these mechanisms must permit all and only the hierarchies in (40) (where the arrow indicates immediate containment). (40) a. ForceP--? TopP--? FocP (wh only)--? FinP b. ForceP --? FocP --? FinP For other languages, very different patterns must be guaranteed, particularly with respect to the order and number of Topic and Focus projections. In this sense, the larger cartographic hierarchy represented in (25) is something of a template, indicating an upper bound on what arrays of structures languages might employ on the left periphery.
A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India by John Beames